International Research in Medical and Health Sciences http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs en-US International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2581-771X Chronic Liver Disease Association with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Clinical and Histopathological Presentation- A Case Report http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/73 <p>Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a result of progressive deterioration of liver functionality over a period of more than six months. There has been an increase in the burden of the disease in the Sub-Saharan region by 57% in the past 20 years. Zambia is estimated to have a chronic liver disease death rate of approximately 26.02 per 100,000 population. One of the established etiological factors in CLD are infections and there is an association between chronic liver disease and tuberculosis infection. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has of recent times been increasing due to the increased prevalence of AIDS and immunosuppressive therapies.</p> <p>We report a case of a 34year old HIV-negative woman who presented with a history of progressive abdominal distension, abdominal fullness and generalized abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, and a history of drinking alcohol with no significant past medical history. Abdominal ultrasound showed hyper-echogenicity of the liver parenchyma. Inguinal lymph node biopsy showed caseating granulomatous inflammation and Langerhans giant cells but no malignant cells. A histological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) was made and after initiation of ATT the patient responded well.</p> <p>Making the correct diagnosis of chronic liver disease in the TB abdomen may be challenging. Physicians therefore must be aware of the disease and its behavior especially in high-risk patients and of the current diagnostic limitation. A combination of the high level of suspicion, microbiologic, radiologic and histopathological examinations help achieve diagnostic accuracy and prevent a delay in treatment which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in patients with this disease.</p> Tisankhe Zulu Chanda Chalela Johnny K. Chanshi Webby Chanda Champo Chewe Kennedy Gondwe Samuel Phiri Christopher Nyirenda Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 4 3 1 5 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.A Awareness of Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Related Factors in Patients Referred to Shahidzadeh Hospital in Behbahan: A Study in Southwestern Iran http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/70 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Given that the golden time to rescue a patient with cardiac arrest is only a few minutes, and since many deaths occur before the patient arrives at the medical center, if those present at the scene are familiar with basic resuscitation, they can perform resuscitation, Prevent the death of the person. Due to the importance of measuring the level of knowledge of individuals, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about basal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients referred to Shahidzadeh Hospital in Behbahan in 2020.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on patients referred to Shahidzadeh Hospital in Behbahan in the first quarter of 2020 by available sampling method. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation with face validity and reliability was 0.71. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software and independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study was performed on 169 patients with a mean age of 25/12±57/34 patients referred to the hospital. The mean knowledge of these people was 69/2±12/4 which indicates poor knowledge in the field of resuscitation. People with higher education and people who had obtained information in this regard during their studies, had a statistically significant better knowledge than others (p &lt;0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between the mean scores of knowledge and gender, marital status, and place of residence (p &gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed that the level of clients' awareness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is low and special attention should be paid to increasing the awareness of these strata in the macro programs of the health network and the health care system. Also, using strategies such as using new classes and educational tools can be very effective and raise the level of awareness of these people. It is also suggested that this study be performed in the clients of health centers and other related factors be examined.</p> Pouriya Darabiyan Alireza Rafi Narges Arash Roya Geravandian Hadis Nazari Zeinab Raiesifar Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 4 3 6 13 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.B Retrospective Study of Effectiveness of Homoeopathic Constitutional Remedies in Treating Children with Delayed Speech http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/72 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Speech is a valid conventional communication method, an action in which language is expressed with verbal symbols of language. Speech development is considered by experts to be a useful indicator of a child’s overall development and cognitive ability and it is also related to school success. If not managed properly, speech delay may impact a person’s life personally, socially, academically, and vocationally for years to come.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To demonstrate the efficiency of homoeopathic constitutional remedies in cases with delayed speech, to understand the other co-existing developmental and behavioural disorders, to understand commonly using remedies.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study was a retrospective study conducted in the host institution. Data are collected from Medical Records Department, cases reported between 2015-2019. The study population was selected by considering the OPD cases coming to the “Sarada Krishna Homoeopathic Medical College Developmental Screen Chart.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most reported cases were males and the most reported age is 4 years. Mostly prescribed medicine was Calcarea group medicine and almost all cases show good improvement. Mostly given potency is 200, based on the susceptibility of the children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Some parents don’t aware of the normal milestones of a child. If it is not managed properly it will affect the overall development of the child. Our homoeopathic remedies are very effective in treating these cases by individualising the person and by prescribing constitutional remedies.</p> Saira Mohammed Salim V SathishKumar Chandraja CV Sisir P R Sugathan N V Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 4 3 14 24 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.C Investıgatıon of The Effect of Corona precautions On Transmıssıon Preventıon of Upper Respıratory Tract Infectıons and Statıstıcal Comparıson http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/76 <p><strong>İntroduction:</strong> In addition to medical studies against the corona epidemic, many predictions are made such as the course of the epidemic, mathematical calculations and statistical models. Medical studies outside as social distancing, hand washing, wearing face mask precaution such as are included. However, due to the new emergence of CORONA and the lack of knowledge about it, data to compare the usefulness of the measures taken are limited. Therefore, in the study, upper respiratory tract infections whose transmission path is similar to CORONA the prevalence one's (URTI) in the community was compared in terms of before and after CORONA. With the results obtained here, the effects of the measures taken can be examined, if deemed necessary after CORONA, it can also conceivable for URTI. Even if it is stated that URIs are not fatal unless there is a complication that develops, and it is unnecessary to isolate patients, the quality of life of the person may decrease due to the disease. It can even cause significant losses according to personal efforts.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> For the study, the numbers of those who applied to the health center with any complaints from 3 different regions before and after CORONA and who were diagnosed with URIs were taken and compared. Calculations were made by dividing them into intervals both on a yearly basis and in 6-month periods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the results obtained; in the spring/summer period before and after CORONA in the URTI a reduction of 10,9% autumn/winter period is for 63,0% to be said. Similarly; In the second region, the spring/ summer period for before and after CORONA in the URTI a reduction of 30,5% autumn/winter period is 42,5% to be said.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results obtained, it can be said that the CORONA measures cause a decrease in URTI, so it can be beneficial for CORONA too, whose transmission route is similar. In addition, the measures taken for CORONA can be generalized for the URTI too, independent of CORONA. In other words, similar measures can be recommended after the CORONA pandemic, especially in the winter and spring months, when URTIs are common. In case health centers warn of URTI prevalence, mask and distance recommendations can be made for places such as public transportation vehicles, schools, barracks in the region. In such environments, the number of people can be diluted, frequently ventilated, and disinfected. Even physicians by giving their first masks to patients diagnosed with URI can form awareness.</p> Muhammed BAYDEMİR Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 4 3 25 32 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.D Rheumatic Heart Disease: Presentation and Management Dilemmas http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/74 <p>Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a major public health concern in developing countries. Late presentation and diagnosis, difficulties in accessing medications in remote areas, and loss of follow-up patients adequately may plausibly explain the suboptimal clinical outcomes. RHD is commonly encountered during childhood and young adulthood and is a major cause of disabilities and preventable deaths.</p> <p>The objective of this case report is to highlight on the occurrence of RHD and some challenges to care of RHD cases presenting to health facilities in resource-limited settings. This may also serve to alert authorities and medical practitioners of the need to ensure the early and adequate diagnosis of RHD given the availability of resources appropriate for its management. Further, although early diagnosis is key, preventive measures need to be put in place, medications made available, and reliable patient follow-up teams established as a holistic package of care.</p> Stephen Banda Lucky Banda Mercy Derera Cynthia Banda Evaristo Banda Kennedy Gondwe Samuel Phiri Christopher Nyirenda Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 4 3 33 39 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.E The Rate of Self-Medication and Its Related Factors in Nursing Students in Behbahan, Southwest of Iran in 2020 http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/71 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Today, Self-medication among nursing students against illnesses has become one of the biggest threats to their health, which should be avoided. Considering that the knowledge and attitudes, in this case, lead to less use of drugs without prescribing and teaching nursing students to other people in the community, therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the rate of self-medication and its related factors nursing students in Behbahan in 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional analytical study, convenient sampling was done in nursing students of Behbahan Faculty of Medical Sciences in 2020. The data collection tools were a demographics information checklist and an approved checklist for self-medication. Data analysis was done with spss-20 software and using the Chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In this study, 120 students with an average of 24.11 ± 0.87, 41.7% of boys and the rest of the girls, were enrolled. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotic, cold and cough, analgesic, neurological, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, anti-psychoactive, opioid and psychedelic, skin, antimicrobial, vitamins and supplements and medicines were 53.3%, 82.5%, 52.5% 3.3%,19.2%, 4.2%, 25.8%, 0.8%, 14.2%, 5.8%, 25.8% and 37% respectively. Females had more analgesic self-medication, more indigenous students than self-medication, and those with less than a weekly walking time had more self-medication and vitamin supplement supplementation (p &lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results indicate a high level of self-care in nursing students and should be considered especially as these future nurses should provide proper education and care to their patients. Also, by providing various strategies such as periodic and free visits to these people, advising them to exercise and providing useful educational workshops about the harm of self-medication will help reduce it. Further studies in this area will help students in the Department of Medicine and the Ministry of Education provide a clear blueprint on the status of self-care in students.</p> Pouriya Darabiyan Zahra Sokhansanj Alireza Rafi Hadis Nazari Roya Geravandian Zeinab Raiesifar Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 4 3 40 46 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.F Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Pancytopenia in a 30-year Old Male: Challenges in Care http://irmhs.com/index.php/irmhs/article/view/75 <p>We report a case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) of a 30-year-old man who presented to a University Teaching Hospital with a history of spontaneous epistaxis associated with generalized body weakness and on and off right-sided chest pains, palpitations, fatigue, hyperhidrosis, and loss of weight. He is a known patient who had been on treatment for a period of 7 months with 400mg of imatinib. He presented with a nasal pack, pallor of grade 2, and splenomegaly. His labs showed pancytopenia, with severe thrombocytopenia and had a working diagnosis established through examination of a bone marrow aspirate. A more definitive diagnosis could not be attained though due to the unavailability of molecular techniques such as reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for the demonstration of the BCR-ABL gene. The case also presented a management dilemma in terms of its progression and the deterioration of the patient despite being fairly compliant and receiving appropriate treatment.</p> Mwansa Bwalya John Bukole David M Chabala Nicollin B Chalapa Bumba N Halucha Kennedy Gondwe Samuel Phiri Christopher Nyirenda Copyright (c) 2021 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 4 3 47 51 10.36437/irmhs.2021.4.3.G