International Research in Medical and Health Sciences en-US (Jose Luis Turabian) (Yogesh Kumar) Mon, 11 Sep 2023 05:30:43 -0400 OJS 60 Stature Estimation among three Ethnic Groups in Delta State of Nigeria using the Second and Fourth Finger Lengths <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp;</strong>The progressive rise in the spate of crime and natural disasters has increased the need for human identification by forensic experts and this is based on individual morphologic features. This study was aimed at estimating stature among three ethnic groups in the Delta State of Nigeria using the second and fourth finger lengths.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:&nbsp;</strong>A total of 1176 adult individuals, comprising 583 males and 593 females participated in the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire, a Digital verniercaliper, and a standiometer were used to obtain data from the subjects. The data collected was statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20, by calculating means and standard deviations as well as standard errors, with a p-value set at &lt;0.05</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>There was observed statistically significant difference in stature between the males and females. The study also revealed males have longer fourth digits and a lesser second-to-fourth digit ratio than females (p&lt;0.05). A significant correlation was also found between height and the length of the second and fourth digit lengths but with a higher correlation with the fourth digit length (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>This study has indicated that the second and fourth fingers are reliable parameters for stature estimation and can be employed as a tool in human forensic identification.</p> Ijeomah Trust Azubike, Patrick S. Igbigbi Copyright (c) 2023 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences Mon, 11 Sep 2023 02:56:43 -0400 Antioxidants in the Management of Sickle Cell Anaemia: An Area to Be Exploited for the Wellbeing of the Patients <p>Sickle cell disease (SCD), also known as sickle cell anemia, is an often serious autosomal recessive disorder that occurs when both parents pass the defective gene to their children. When oxygen pressure is low, the biconcave disc shape of red blood cells turns sickle due to the polymerization of defective hemoglobin called HbS, caused by point mutations in the beta-globin gene. In patients with sickle cell disease, red blood cells only last for 10 to 20 days, and the bone marrow cannot replenish them quickly enough. Red blood cells change shape in SCD and become hard, sticky, or sickle-shaped which tends to impede blood flow in the small capillaries. A single nucleotide change (GTG for GAG) in codon six of the globin gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 11, causes sickle cell disease (SCD). As a result, valine displaces glutamic acid at the sixth amino acid position in the globin chain, leading to abnormal production of HbS (sickle hemoglobin), which tends to polymerize under conditions of low oxygen saturation, such as cases occur in the microcirculation. These variables affect the degree of deoxygenation of hemoglobin, pH, intracellular HbF concentration, erythrocyte HbS concentration, and polymerization. Repeated polymerization cycles cause irreversible damage to erythrocyte deformability (RBC), whereas a single polymerization causes a reversible reduction and increased susceptibility to mechanical breakage. The polymerization of HbS is the main factor causing SCD. These variables have an impact on pH, intracellular HbF concentration, erythrocyte HbS concentration, polymerization, and degree of hemoglobin deoxidation. Repeated polymerization cycles cause irreversible damage to red blood cell (RBC) deformity, whereas a single polymerization causes reversible reduction and increased mechanical fragility. As oxygen pressure increases, red blood cells can switch back to this state. The result is followed by a “sickle cell crisis,” a vicious cycle that exacerbates hypoxia and leads to more sickle cell disease. Microvascular circulation can be impeded by these deformed sickle cells, leading to vascular damage, organ infarction, pain, and other symptoms of SCD.</p> Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Umi Omar Bunu, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, Jean Bosco Habimana Copyright (c) Mon, 11 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Effects of Motivational Techniques on the Oral Hygiene Status of Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Comparitive Interventional Study <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp;</strong>Malocclusion is one of the common oral problems that not only affects the facial appearance but also has a large impact in terms of discomfort, quality of life, and social and functional limitation Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is a risk factor for plaque accumulation. Therefore, the maintenance of oral hygiene is essential to prevent the occurrence and severity of gingivitis and periodontal disease.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim:&nbsp;</strong>The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of verbal and illustration methods of motivation for patients who are undergoing fixed mechanotherapy.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>A Cross-sectional, interventional study was carried out on patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment attending the OPD (Outpatient Department) of a Dental college in Uttar Pradesh.&nbsp;<strong>Forty&nbsp;</strong>orthodontic patients were selected with fully bonded pre-adjusted edgewise appliances in both arches and randomly divided into two groups. Modified Plaque Index and Gingival Index were scored at baseline and after one month. The collected data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - SPSS v22.0 software package. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and frequency distributions were used. Student’s t-test was carried out to compare the means of the Plaque Index and Gingival Index at the baseline and at the one-month follow-up of the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The study results indicated that the method of providing oral health education to orthodontic patients using an illustration catalogue was better than just providing verbal information as there was a higher percentage change observed for both Plaque Index (42.98) as well as Gingival Index (10.74) and the results were found to be statistically very significant for Group B (p = 0.000) from the baseline to 1 month for both the indices. Thus, the illustration method was found to be more effective than verbal instructions only.</p> Ambar Khan, Jayesh Dosi, Babita Verma, Basavaraj P, Ashish Singla, Saumya Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2023 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences Mon, 11 Sep 2023 02:39:38 -0400 Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Children <p>Two-thirds of anemia in children worldwide, of which IDA accounts for 20 to 25% of cases, is caused by iron deficiency, which is a significant global health burden. Despite treatment, unfortunately, IDA can have neuropsychiatric effects and is strongly associated with cognitive decline throughout childhood and adolescence 60% of African children under 5 years of age are anemic, of which IDA accounts for 50% of the burden. However, iron salt supplementation has a significant impact on preventing or reducing anemia. It is estimated that since the late 1990s, about 2 billion people worldwide have ID disease, which causes half of all anemia cases. The majority of people with iron deficiency who do not have anemia have no symptoms and can only be identified by a screening test. The most common symptom of iron deficiency anemia is pallor, also commonly seen in the nail bed, conjunctiva, palmar crease, and nail bed. In the absence of iron and ferritin studies, haemoglobin can be a sensitive test to distinguish IDA from other forms of microcytic anemia.</p> Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, Jean Bosco Habimana Copyright (c) Mon, 11 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400