Effects of Motivational Techniques on the Oral Hygiene Status of Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Comparitive Interventional Study
Introduction: Malocclusion is one of the common oral problems that not only affects the facial appearance but also has a large impact in terms of discomfort, quality of life, and social and functional limitation Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is a risk factor for plaque accumulation. Therefore, the maintenance of oral hygiene is essential to prevent the occurrence and severity of gingivitis and periodontal disease.
Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of verbal and illustration methods of motivation for patients who are undergoing fixed mechanotherapy.
Methodology: A Cross-sectional, interventional study was carried out on patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment attending the OPD (Outpatient Department) of a Dental college in Uttar Pradesh. Forty orthodontic patients were selected with fully bonded pre-adjusted edgewise appliances in both arches and randomly divided into two groups. Modified Plaque Index and Gingival Index were scored at baseline and after one month. The collected data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - SPSS v22.0 software package. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and frequency distributions were used. Student’s t-test was carried out to compare the means of the Plaque Index and Gingival Index at the baseline and at the one-month follow-up of the study.
Results: The study results indicated that the method of providing oral health education to orthodontic patients using an illustration catalogue was better than just providing verbal information as there was a higher percentage change observed for both Plaque Index (42.98) as well as Gingival Index (10.74) and the results were found to be statistically very significant for Group B (p = 0.000) from the baseline to 1 month for both the indices. Thus, the illustration method was found to be more effective than verbal instructions only.
Liu Z, McGrath C, Hägg U. The impact of malocclusion/orthodontic treatment need on the quality of life: A systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2009;79(3):585-591.doi: https://doi.org/10.2319/042108-224.1
Otuyemi OD, Kolawole KA. Perception of orthodontic treatment need: opinion comparisons of patients, parents and orthodontists. Afr J Oral Health. 2005; 2(1-2):42-52.
Arici S, Alkan A, Arici N. Comparison of different toothbrushing protocols in poor – toothbrushing orthodontic patients. Eur J Orthod. 2007; 29(5):488-492. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjm038
Mei L, Chieng J, Wong C, Benic G, Farella M. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Progress Orthod. 2017; 18(1):1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186%2Fs40510-016-0158-5
Boffa J, KuglerJr JF. Development and Testing of a Junior High School Oral Hygiene Education Program. J Sch Health. 1970; 40(10):557-560.
Sadowsky C, BeGole EA. Long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal health. Am J Orthod. 1981; 80(2):156-172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9416(81)90216-5
McGlynn FD, LeCompte EJ, Thomas RG, Courts FJ, Melamed BG. Effects of behavioural self-management on oral hygiene adherence among orthodontic patients. Am J OrthodDentofacOrthop. 1987; 91(1):15-21. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-5406(87)90204-6
Lindhe J. Textbook of Clinical Periodontology: Epidemiology of Periodontal disease, Pathogenesis of plaque – associated Periodontal disease. 2nd ed. Munksgaard: Blackwell 2003.
Fischman SL. Current status of indices of plaque. J ClinPeriodontol. 1986; 13(5):371-374.doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051x.1986.tb01475.x
Diamanti‐Kipioti A, Gusberti FA, Lang NP. Clinical and microbiological effects of fixed orthodontic appliances. J ClinPeriodontol. 198; 14(6):326-333. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051x.1987.tb00979.x
Paolantonio M, di Girolamo G, Pedrazzoll V, di Murro C, Picciani C, Catamo G, Cattabriga M, Piccolomini R. Occurrence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients wearing orthodontic appliances: A cross‐sectional study. J ClinPeriodontol. 1996; 23(2):112-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051x.1996.tb00543.x
Peter S. Essentials of Public Health Dentistry. 6th Ed. New Delhi: Arya Medi Publishing House Pvt Ltd; 2017.
Boyd RL. Longitudinal evaluation of a system for self‐monitoring plaque control effectiveness in orthodontic patients. J ClinPeriodontol. 1983; 10(4):380-388. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051x.1983.tb01287.x
Lees A, Rock WP. A comparison between written, verbal, and videotape oral hygiene instruction for patients with fixed appliances. J Orthodont. 2000; 27(4):323-328. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ortho/27.4.323