Stature Estimation among three Ethnic Groups in Delta State of Nigeria using the Second and Fourth Finger Lengths

  • Ijeomah Trust Azubike Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Patrick S. Igbigbi Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
Keywords: Anthropometry, Finger length, Nigeria, Stature


Introduction: The progressive rise in the spate of crime and natural disasters has increased the need for human identification by forensic experts and this is based on individual morphologic features. This study was aimed at estimating stature among three ethnic groups in the Delta State of Nigeria using the second and fourth finger lengths. 

Materials and Methods: A total of 1176 adult individuals, comprising 583 males and 593 females participated in the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire, a Digital verniercaliper, and a standiometer were used to obtain data from the subjects. The data collected was statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20, by calculating means and standard deviations as well as standard errors, with a p-value set at <0.05

Results: There was observed statistically significant difference in stature between the males and females. The study also revealed males have longer fourth digits and a lesser second-to-fourth digit ratio than females (p<0.05). A significant correlation was also found between height and the length of the second and fourth digit lengths but with a higher correlation with the fourth digit length (p<0.05).

Conclusion: This study has indicated that the second and fourth fingers are reliable parameters for stature estimation and can be employed as a tool in human forensic identification.


Ishak NI, Henry N, Franklin D (2012). Estimation of stature from hand and handprint dimensions in a Western Australian population. Forensic Science International. 216(1-3):199.1-7. doi:

Enaohwo andIgbigbi, P.S. (2006). Cephalix index in Ovu community of Delta State. Abstract of Anat. Soc. Nigeria. 3:26.

Enaohwo M and Okoro G. (2018). Anthropometric study of the frontal sinus on plain radiographs in Delta State University Teaching Hospital. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy. 17(2):49-51.

Esinulo Ogechi Peace, Anibor Ese, Enaohwo Mamerhi Taniyohwo. (2022). The Variations of Auricular Tubercle among Ika People in Delta State, Nigeria. IJO-International Journal of Health Sciences and Nursing. 5(9):1-9.

Rastogi P, Nagesh KR, Yoganarasimha K (2008). Estimation of stature from hand dimensions of North and South Indians. Legal Medicine. 10:185-189. doi:

Udi OA, Okoro OG, Enaowho TM, Douglas B. (2023). Nutritional knowledge and body mass index among students at Novena University, Ogume, Nigeria. Folia MedicaIndonesiana. 59(1):1-6.doi:

Tyagi AK, Kohli A, Verma SK, Aggarwal BB (1999). Correlation between stature and finger length. International Journal of Medical Toxicology Legal Medicine. 1:20-2.

Lalit K., Sandeep A., Rajesh G., Amit P., (2014). Correlation between the index finger Stature in Uttarakhand Population. Anthropologist. 17(3):1007-1009; doi:

Oladunni AE, Ogheneyebrorue GO, Joyce EIkubor. (2021). Radiological assessment of age from epiphyseal fusion at the wrist and ankle in Southern Nigeria. Forensic Science International: Reports.3:1-4.doi:

World Medial Association (2013). “Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Research Involving Human Subjects”. Journal of American Medical Association, 310 (20): 2191-2194;

Yamada K., Ohta M., Yoshimura K., Hasekura H. (1981). A possible association of Y chromosome heterochromatin with stature. Hum Genet. 58:268-270;

Numan A. I, Idris M. O, Zirahei J. V, Amaza D. S, Dalori M. B. (2013). Prediction of stature from hand anthropometry: A comparative study in three ethnic group in Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research. 3(4): 1062-1073.

Eboh D. E., Igbibi P. S., (2017). Stature estimation from the cephalometric parameters of young adults in five Nigerian ethnic groups. (2017). Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology. 22(2):98-109;

Didia B. C., Ethelbert C. N., Okechukwu A., (2009). Stature estimation formulae for Nigerians. 54(1):20-1; doi:

Danborno, B., Adebisi, S.S., Adelaiye, A.B. and Ojo, S.A. (2010). Relationship between finger ratio (2D:4D) and birth weight in Nigerians. Anthropologist 12: 127-130. doi:

Egwu J., Ikechukwu A. C, Chinedu A. F, Emeka A. G, Kingsely O. C, Chinedu U. G., (2014). Stature estimation using right fingers and palm length in Igbo population, Nigeria. Annals Bioanthropology. 2:23-8. doi:

Ilayperuma I, Nanayakkara G, Palahepittiya N. (2009). The prediction of stature based on hand length. Galle. Med. J. 14:15-18; doi:

Ebite LE, Ozoko TC, Eweke AO, Otuagu PO, Oni AO, Om Iniabohs FAE, (2008). Height: Ulna ratio: A method of stature estimation in a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. Internet Journal of Forensic Science. 3 (1);

Anderson, W. W., Ayala, F. J., Michod R. E. (1977). Chromosomal and allozymic diagnosis of three species of Drosophila, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosopjilapersimilis and Drosophila Miranda. J. Hered. 68(2):71-74; doi:

Kachan T, Krishan K (2011). Anthropometry of hand in sex determination of dismembered remains - a review of literature. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 18(1):14-7; doi:

Ibegbu A.O., Danjuma Z.C., Hamman W.O., Umana U.E., Ikyembe D.T., et. al., (2012). Anthropometric Study of the Index (2nd) and Ring (4th) Fingers in Ebira Ethnic Group of Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4(2): 79-84;

Oladipo S. G., Fawehinmi H. B., Ezon-Ebidor E., Osunwoke A. E., Ordu K. S., (2009). Second to fourth finger ratio in Nigerian Igbos and Yorubas. Science Research Essays 4:1146-8.

Oladipo G. S., Anugweje K. C.,Jevas K., Amasiatu V. C., Ipigansi U. N.,Enefe G., (2017). Second digit length, fourth digit length and second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D): Relevance in choice of male footballer athletes and female no footballer athletes. Anthropology. 2(1):23-28.

McIntyre, M. H, (2006). The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action. Reproductive Biological Endocrinology. 4:10; doi:

Wilson G. D., (1983). Finger Length as an index of assertiveness in Women. Personality and individual differences. 4:111-112.

Bidmos MA (2008). Estimation of fragmentary femora in indigenous South Africans. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122:293-99; doi:

Hossain S, Begun JA, Banu LA, Rahman F, Akhter Z (2010). Prediction of stature from hand length and breadth -An Anthropometric study on Christian Gara tribal Bangladeshi females. Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy. 8(1):21-27.

Amit G., Kiran K., Devi C. S., Vijay W., Anshi J., Kayen S. K., (2014). Stature and gender determination using odontometry and skull anthropometry. Journal of Forensic Dental Science 6 (2):101-106.doi:

How to Cite
Trust Azubike, I., & Igbigbi, P. S. (2023). Stature Estimation among three Ethnic Groups in Delta State of Nigeria using the Second and Fourth Finger Lengths. International Research in Medical and Health Sciences, 6(4), 1-11.